tennis_history

History of Tennis

Historical development of tennis dates back several a large number of years. So, individuals who are involve in historical researches of this excellent sport claim to possess discovered evidence of playing tennis in ancient Greece culture.

The History of tennis game was created from a 12th century French handball game called “Paume” (palm). Within this game the ball was struck with the hand. Following some time “Paume” game created handball “Jeu de Paume” (game of the palm) and there were used racquets. The game was first created by European monks for entertainment roles during ceremonial occasions. At first, the ball was hit with hands. Later, the leather glove came into existence. This leather glove was replaced with an adaptive handle for effective hitting and serving of the ball. That was a birth of tennis racquet.

Development of tennis racquet , tennis balls also underwent frequent modifications. Initial tennis ball was from wood. Later in the background of tennis ball was filled with cellulose material to gave way to a bouncier. Monks from all areas of Europe favored “Jeu de Paume” game during 14th century much to the chagrin from the mother Church. The game spread and evolved in Europe.

The game became very well-liked, particularly in France, where was adopted by the royal family. In the year of 1316 French king Louis X dies following hard “Jeu de Paume” game (other terms of this stage of game are Royal Tennis in Great Britain, Royal Tennis in Australia, Court Tennis within the United states of america), but this death does null to damp the popularity of the recreation.
16th Century – Background of Tennis

In between the 16th and 18th centuries the game from the palm was highly regarded by kings and nobleman. The French players would start the palm game by shouting the word “Tenez” (Play!). The palm game soon came to become known as “real tennis” or “royal“.

  • 1530s – English king Henry VIII builds a tennis court at Hampton Court Palace (This court no longer exist but a comparable court built there in 1625 and is in use until today).
     
  • 1583 – The very first racquet was invented in Italy (background of tennis – web source).
     

 

19th Century History of Tennis

 

  • 1870 – Within the Wimbledon district of London established All England Croquet Club. Tennis is still an indoor game played by royal and rich benefactors.
     
  • 1873 – Significant Walter Wingfield invented a version of Real Tennis that may be played outdoors on a lawn. The game known as ‘Sphairistike’ (Greek for “playing ball” ) and first introduced it to Wales(UK). Played on hour-glass courts on Manor House lawns by rich English individuals. This is truly exactly where today’s tennis developed. Wingfield offers Sphairistike in boxes that function two net posts, a net, rackets, and India rubber balls, plus instructions about laying out the court and actually playing the game. Wingfield’s boxes kick start the modern type of tennis, though the 1 thing that does not work will be the name, and Wingfield soon realizes that his subtitle “lawn tennis” is a lot much better than greek word “Sphairistike”.
     
  • 1874 – Joseph and Clarence Clark (brothers), take one of Walter Wingfield’s boxes to America, leading to the initial lawn tennis tournament in the USA later that year.
     
  • 1875 – Henry Cavendish Jones convinced the All England Croquet Club to replace a croquet court with a lawn tennis court. Marylebone Cricket Club followed suit. Marylebone Cricket Club made significant changes to the game. They added Deuce, Advantage, and 2 chances per serve. The hourglass-shaped court also changed to a rectangular court, identical towards the measurements we use these days.
     
  • 1877 – The extremely initial World Tennis Championship was held at Worple Road in Wimbledon,London (UK).The sponsors were the All England Croquet Club. Only 22 players entered the Mens Singles, which was the only event. Spectators paid a mere one shilling to watch the finals. The first winner of this mens event in the tennis background of Wimbledon was Spencer Gore.
     
  • 1880 – The overhead smash was introduced into the game for the very first time in the history of tennis by the Renshaw brothers in Wimbledon. They would dominate Wimbledon for a decade, winning all but 1880 and 1887 championships between them in the history of tennis.Overhead smash is a shot played above the head, hitting the ball downwards, difficult and fast into your opponents side of the court.
     
  • 1881 – America founded The United states National Lawn Tennis Association (USNLTA) , and within the same year it holds its first National Championship, the forerunner of the US Open but then restricted to American residents. It is held at Newport, Rhode Island. Initial winner within the background of tennis US National Championships was Dick Sears.
     
  • 1884 – The Wimbledon Championships are open to women for the very first time. There are only 13 participants. Mens doubles was also introduced for the first time within the background of tennis.
     
  • 1887 – U.S. Championships are open to women for the first time. Lottie Dod wins her initial Wimbledon Ladies Singles (Lottie win her first singles match with only 15 years).
     
  • 1888 – Lawn Tennis Association founded (LTA) in order to maintain the new rules and standards of tennis.
     
  • 1891 – The extremely initial French Championships are played, these Championships were open for French residents only.
     
  • 1896 – Tennis became 1 from the core sports in the first contemporary Olympic Games.
     
  • 1897 – The French Championships are open to women for the very first time in the french tennis history.
     
  • 1899 – The England Croquet Club changed it’s name to the All England Tennis & Croquet Club.
     

 

20th Century History of Tennis

 

  • 1900 – Dwight F.Davis, a Harvard university student decides to degree a team challenge match in between the United states of america and the British Isles. The cup was engraved as “International Lawn Tennis Challenge Trophy”, later recognized as the Davis Cup.
     
  • 1905 – The Australasian National Championships, later became recognized as Australian Open are founded, with the venue alternating in between centers in Australia and New Zealand.
     
  • 1912 – The International Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF) is born with an aim of operating the four major tennis championships (Wimbledon Championships, U.S. Championships, Australasian Championships and French Championships).
     
  • 1913 – Founded with 13 members representing 14 nations. The aim is to ensure the sport grows with regular scoring and minimal distinction between nation members (1977. became ITF).
     
  • 1919 – Suzanne Lenglen, the first tennis sensation wins the Wimbledon Ladies Championships title, the first of 12 titles at what are later turn out to be the Grand Slam tournaments. She mixes relentless accuracy with balletic elegance, and enchances tennis’s profile as a well-liked sport and very contributed to history of tennis.
     
  • 1922 – The Australasian Championships are open to ladies for the very first time(tennis history source from internet).
     
  • 1924 – Tennis retired from the Olympic Games referring a lack of professionalism in the arrangement and Olyimpic Games want to not schedule Wimbledon Championships in an year of the Olympic Games.
     
  • 1925 – Finally “French residents only” rule is dropped by the French Championships. Australasian championships became Australian Championships and could be hosted only in territory of Australia.
     
  • 1927 – In the Wimbledon Championships idea of seeding players was presented for the first time. The French win the davis Cup , The French national association gets land ont the edge of Paris in the city authorities, builds a new tennis stadium, and names it Roland Garros (he was French war hero in First World War).
     
  • 1928 – The Stade Roland Garros hosts the French Championships for the very first time within the background of tennis.
     
  • 1930 – One-piece Ash wood tennis racquets reaplaced with laminted wood.
     
  • 1933 – Australian Jack Crawford comes within one set of winning all 4 significant titles within the exact same year. There are mutterings that he is on the verge of a “Grand Slam” – taken in the card game Bridge.It was truly an extraordinary sporting achievement Until today, it managed only a handful of outstanding tennis players, truly an excellent moment within the background of tennis, correct?
     
  • 1938 – The first tennis player to finish the tennis history of Grand Slam of all four Championships within the exact same year was the American Don Budge.The New York Occasions tennis correspondent Allison Danzig uses the phrase ‘a Grand Slam in tennis’, thereby entrenching the term in tennis vocabulary of tennis history.
     
  • 1947 – Jack Kramer wins Wimbledon. He had involved to turn professional the previous year but was determined to win Wimbledon as soon as, to give credibility to his assault on the expert circuit, each as a player and as an entrepreneur. He was to turn out to be one of the most influential figures from the contemporary tennis globe.
     
  • 1950 – Pro Tour produced by Jack Cramer becomes very well-liked with each amateur tennis players and the public (history of tennis web source).
     
  • 1953 – She was first lady who win all 4 Chamiponships in history of tennis and complete the “Grand Slam”.
     
  • 1960 – Determined by years of charges of ‘shamateurism’, the ILTF annual meeting debates a move to get tennis ‘open’ (to end the split amateur and expert circuits that had plagued the sport because the 1920s). The concept is defeated by five votes. It meant the 4 Grand Slam tournaments remained purely for ‘amateurs’, and any man who had won a few majors in their early 20s of tennis background was likely to leave the official circuit to earn money as a touring professional.
     
  • 1967 – The very first metal tennis racquet seems thanks to Wilson. Wimbledon holds a demonstration tournament for experts, and declares that its 1968 championships will probably be open to all participants, amateurs and experts. It is the sign for tennis to go “open”.
     
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    20th Century – “Open Era” of Tennis History

     

    • 1968 – The first official “open” tournament takes place at Bournemouth on the English south coast, and the initial Grand Slam, the newly named French Open, leads inside a new era. Ken Rosewall, a returning expert won each occasions.
       
    • 1969 – Rodney George “Rod” Laver of Australia becomes the first man to win a pure “open” Grand Slam, by taking all four major titles in the exact same year.Rod Laver completed his first Grand Slam in 1962 and second in 1969 – he is the only player in background to attain two Grand Slams.
    • 1970 – The tiebreak is introduced to Grand Slam tennis, as the US Open adopts the nine-point shootout (sudden death at 4-4). The winner of the tie-break was the very first individual to reach five factors. Jack Kramer introduces a point method for tennis tournaments based on how far players go in tournaments and on the end of season prize cash goes to player who had most points (tennis background web sources).
       
    • 1972 – The Association of Tennis Professionals is formed and Jack Kramer is chosen as first Executive Director in tennis history.
       
    • 1973 – Wimbledon is boycotted by the ATP following the suspension of Yugoslav Nikki Pilic.
       
    • 1976 – Due to Howard Head first graphite and fiberglass racquets seem on the tennis scene within the tennis background. Within the Wimbledon Championships Swedish player Bjorn Borg won his initial title in singles.
       
    • 1977 – As Wimbledon celebrates its centenary, the US Open offers farewell towards the personal setting of the Westside Club at Forest Hills, to move to a non-club national tennis centre nearby at Flushing Meadows. The final US Open at Forest Hills begins with Renée Richards, a transsexual who had played within the men’s singles as Richard Raskind in 1960, becoming the very first (and only) person to possess played in each the men’s and women’s singles at Grand Slam level.
       
    • 1984 – Clay develops into a temporary indoor surface when Sweden becomes the very first country to set up a makeshift clay court to get a Davis Cup tie. And no ordinary tie – it is the final, and the go to to Gothenburg’s Scandinavium arena of one from the strongest Davis Cup teams in tennis background: world No. 1 John McEnroe, No. 2 Jimmy Connors, and the world’s best doubles group, McEnroe and Peter Fleming. By Saturday night, Sweden is the champion for the loss of one set, and clay is established as a surface option for indoor ties. Tennis also returns towards the Olympic Games as a test occasion for under-21 players at Los Angeles and is won by Stefan Edberg and Steffi Graf.
       
    • 1985 – The German player Boris Becker was the youngest ever and initial unseeded Wimbledon Mens Singles Champion with only 17 years (precisely 17 years and 227 days old).
    • 1988 – The Australian Open Championships moves into the contemporary era of tennis history with a new national tennis centre at Flinders Park (later renamed Melbourne Park), characterised from the initial tennis stadium having a retractable roof. Steffi Graf beats Chris Evert within the initial ‘indoor’ Grand Slam final.
       
    • 1989 – The ATP transforms itself from a players’ union into a tour body. In an announcement made within the US Open’s parking lot, it says it will take more than the running from the men’s tour in January 1990 from the Men’s International Expert Tennis Council, that had operated below the ITF’s auspices, and henceforth be recognized as the ‘ATP Tour’. A function of the new tour is an elite series of nine events, the ‘Super Nine’ (now the Masters Series). Using the breakaway denoting a form of civil war in tennis, the Grand Slam tournaments form their very own year-ending tournament to start in 1990 known as ‘The Grand Slam Cup’. It will share a prize cash pool of (a then massive) $1.5 million amongst 16 players and two reserves. The rival year-ending occasions had been to final another 10 years within the tennis background before peace broke out in 1999
       
    • 1990 – Martina Navratilova became the Wimbledon ladies Singles Champion to get a record 9th time.
       
    • 1994 – Tennis on grass is played in indoor conditions for the very first time in the tennis background, when the new retractable roof on the Gerry Weber Stadium in Halle, Germany, is closed to permit play to continue during rain.Martina Navratilova retires from singles tennis, having won a record 167 singles titles, a record 1438 matches won, and an 9 Wimbledon titles.
       

     

    21st Century – “A New Open Era” of Tennis History

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